A New Axial Age For The Jewish People
In writing history, the term Axial Age refers to revolutionary and radical changes in civilizations, nations, faiths, economies, societies, scientific discoveries (E=mc2), and the birth and death of peoples. 1945 was the prototypical Axial Age that separated the old order of Europe from the new order of the United States and the Soviet Union as the two world powers; the eventual dissolution of European colonialism; and the creation of a new middle Class in America due to the GI Bill. The Jewish world patterned its Axial Age in 1945 with the Holocaust (the 6,000,000 murdered resulting in the loss of two thirds of European Jewry); the realization that Europe would never again be in the forefront of Judaism because of its destroyed institutions– Yeshivas, Synagogues, the Yiddish Language and culture; that during the War for the first time in history there was the likelihood of the complete destruction of the Jewish People; that the world not only didn’t care (H.R. Trevor Roper’s history of World War II devotes only one paragraph to the Holocaust), but there was resentment and heightened antisemitism to the survivors in Europe (Poland Kielce pogrom, 1946) and the Soviet Union (Life and Fate by Vasily Grossman, Stalin’s murder of Yiddish Intellectuals, 1949; the Doctors Plot, 1953)(i) In 1948 another Axial Age occurred with the establishment of the State of Israel. This event 51 years after Theodor Herzl’s revolutionary pamphlet The Jewish State (Der Judenstaat) had monumental reverberations in the Jewish and non-Jewish world.
From then on Zionism became the pillar of the Jewish world and Israel, but was looked at ambivalently by the Christian world. The fact that there was an Israel was an affront to the Soviet Union and its Socialist partners and followers. In the case of Christianity it was far more complicated. The Vatican under Pope Pius XII,(ii) who was silent during the Holocaust, refused to recognize Israel. Some Protestant denominations were more open-minded but still were reticent to eliminate their Replacement Theology or Covenantal Theology (The doctrine that the Jews after Jesus are out of history and have no place in Israel). Later this would change. Israel through no fault of its own except its will to survive was always in the news, whether fighting terrorists and armies from Egypt, The PLO, and most recently Hamas and Hezbollah. The miraculous victory of the Six Day War, the unbelievable rescue of Israelis at Entebbe (while the French government, the plane being an Air France jet, cowardly and callously deserted the Jewish passengers to their supposed fate of either death or being held for ransom by “German” revolutionary terrorists) stood in the face of the UN’s heinous denunciation of Israel with Yasser Arafat carrying a loaded gun as they voted to censure Israel and the entire Jewish people with its resolution of November 1975, “Zionism Is Racism.” And of course most recently the world and the United States under the previous administration(iii) rewarding Iran with money in cash, tacit support in billions of dollars of credits and trade, intentionally ignoring Iran’s support of terrorism, as well as its promise to destroy Israel with missiles tipped with nuclear weapons. This hatred and concomitant unwillingness of the world to confront the death threat to the Jewish people is upsetting but is the stark reality of our time. Israel and the Jewish People can’t hide from the world, from history, from destiny. Herzl’s dream of Zionism normalizing the Jewish People was an illusion. An Eternal People can never be normal. Today the Jews are in a new Axial Age confronting five revolutionary changes. 1) They (The Jews) for the first time in 2,000 years have in Israel the largest Jewish population in the world. 2) Within a decade, if projections are accurate, the majority of world Jewry will again live in Israel. 3) For the first time in history the greatest support for the Jewish People, for Israel, for the Jewish future, for Judaism itself, is from Christians.(iv)There are hundreds of thousands of people, possibly millions,(v) who identify themselves as part of the Lost Tribes (B’nai Menashe, Scythians, Scots-Irish, Africans, Chinese, Native American, even Pashtun) who claim Jewish ancestry (Beit Anusim), who have Jewish DNA markers (Cohanim, Levites and others); religious beliefs–The Mormons; people who have an affinity for Judaism and a theology that they are descended from the Tribe of Ephraim. (Lost Souls who are looking to come home) This is truly remarkable considering the Jewish ambivalence of identity 70 years ago where many Jews tried to and succeeded in passing as Gentiles. 4) The Jews and the Judaism of the Diaspora are in crisis. Identity, love of Israel, love of Judaism, love of the Jewish People are being replaced by an ambivalent or even negative attitude. Assimilation (estimates of 75% of Non Orthodox Jews intermarry), Jewish reproduction— the lowest of any ethnic group is hollowing out the core of the Jewish community in the United States. Synagogues and JCC’s and other Jewish institutions are closing or merging as a sign of this breakdown. The Conservative Movement has lost one third of all its congregations nationwide, and Reform Judaism, after years of compromise (Patrilineal Descent, Rabbis officiating at mixed marriages, Rabbis marrying Gentiles, LGBT Rabbis, substituting political concerns for Jewish concerns), is facing decline and the similar fate of Conservative Judaism. 5) Along with the meteoric rise in Antisemitism worldwide and in Academia, especially the Antisemitism of the Left and its new strategy of “Human Rights” and Intersectionality (where Leftist Groups— Black Lives Matter, Code Pink, Antifa, Green Party, Occupy Wall Street, Oxfam, Amnesty International, most Academic Associations and activists in the American Library Association and many more gather together and cooperate in their attacks on Israel, Zionism and oftentimes Judaism (recently a Gay Rights Parade in Chicago wouldn’t let a Jewish group march), there has been a political component. At the Democratic Convention in 2016 (Jews have long been identified with the Democratic Party and regularly vote 80% or more Democratic, and also make up a significant percentage in their contributions to the Party), Israeli flags were burned, and many delegates voiced their support of the Palestinians, BDS (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions), and even the elimination of the Jewish State (Cornel West). In this cauldron of Jew hatred there has now arisen a Jewish self-hatred not seen since before WWII. Jews (George Soros, Hollywood types, Jews in the media) have financed J Street (which curiously arose with the Obama Administration and supported all its policies against Israel including the recent UN criminalization of Jews living in Jerusalem), Jewish Voice For Peace (a well financed hate group calling for the dissolution of Israel and support for BDS),(vi) and many other ad hoc groups. There has also been an insidious takeover of traditionally Jewish groups. HIAS (Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society), now headed by a BDS supporter, Jennie Rosenn, calling for mass Muslim immigration to the United States, as well as the compromising of the ADL, which refrains from attacking Antisemitism of the Left but concentrates instead on the declining Antisemitism of Neo Nazis, as well as promoting Holocaust observances in Europe; National Council of Jewish Women, that feels that the greatest Jewish issue is abortion on demand; Workmens Circle and its embracing Leftist causes over support for Israel, and others. Many years ago in a book by Xaviera Hollander, The Happy Hooker, her autobiography as a Manhattan Madam, she spoke about her clients and their predilections and desires. Being Jewish, it pained her to describe her Jewish clients (not Israelis) as the most pathologically sick group she serviced. This descent into Jewish self-hatred mirrors her description as being a pathology of the soul. Sadly there are rabbis, professors of Jewish Studies, Jewish entertainers, and Jewish leaders who have succumbed to this terrible affliction.
These five axial changes are both challenges and opportunities. We cannot afford to ignore what is happening to Jews, Judaism and Israel. Most Left Wing/feelgood causes today (The Environment, LGBT, DACA, Code Pink, Black Lives Matter, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, OXFAM, Doctors Without Borders etc.) practice Intersectionality, which by definition is antisemitic and anti-Zionist. It may make us feel good, but we are doing evil by supporting them. We must embrace and repeatedly thank Christian groups that not only support Israel but also the tenets of Judaism itself (CUFI-Christians United For Israel). As an aside, ADL is not in the forefront of fighting BDS on college campuses, but CUFI On Campus is.(vii) We must identify every self-hating Jew and prevent him or her from gaining a foothold in the Jewish community. They are no different from the sick clients of Xaviera Hollander: incurable and perverse. Canary Mission and CAMERA are organizations that identify antisemitic, anti-Israel individuals and groups.(viii) We must invite and welcome these people and groups (United Israel World Union and others) who fervently want to be part of the Jewish People. In a list of the ten most important issues for the Jews, Israel must be in the first five. Our survival as a people depends on this. Judaism is our rock and we must embrace it again in all its forms. We must understand that the family, the Jewish family, is an important goal and the way for our survival. Last, the Jews are an eternal people and have watched civilizations come and go in their 4,000-year history, from the world’s oldest civilization in the Fertile Crescent (Babylon, Sumer, Akkadia, Medea, Chaldea), to the present in the United States. Possibly it is now time finally for the Jews to be truly a “Light Unto The Nations.” This does not mean joining some feelgood group (UNICEF, OXFAM, and politically correct charities), but finding in our Bible the answers to the World’s strivings— Peace, the elimination of terrible diseases, helping the poor, and creating another Garden of Eden for everyone.
To Realize A Dream 28 Minutes $24.95 A History of Zionism
Let My People Go 54 Minutes $24.95 The epic story of the Jewish People and their miraculous return to Israel.
Israel The Promise Of The Jewish People 58 Minutes $24.95
An inspiring look at the Jewish People and their destiny in Israel.
Herzl 54 minutes $24.95 The story of the founder of the Zionist movement.
Six Days In June 15 Minutes $24.95 Israel’s miraculous victory in 1967.
J Street Challenge 64 Minutes $24.95 The creation of an Anti-Israel “Jewish” organization financed by a self hating Jew.
To Torah And Testimony 63 Minutes $24.95 The witnessing of God’s presence by the Jewish People at Sinai is a unique event in history. This serves as the bedrock foundation to inspire and comfort the true man of faith in the existence of God.
Restoring Abrahamic Faith (Audio) 112 Minutes $24.95
The bedrock faith of Abraham is expressed in four fundamental precepts: Uncompromisingly monotheistic – The Shema is mentioned in Deuteronomy and Jeremiah; The Torah is its source and Law; It is covenantal –The Jewish People will always be the “Chosen People;” It is radically Messianic; the promise of Isaiah, Ezekiel and other Prophets are not empty promises, but will be fulfilled.
100 Years of the Balfour Declaration
It has been said that Zionism and the Zionist movement started with Theodor Herzl’s The Jewish State— Der Judenstaat of 1896, and later the First Zionist Congress in Basel in 1897, but became a reality with the publishing of The Balfour Declaration of November 2, 1917. Inspired by the genius of Chaim Weizmann, who as well as being one of the greatest scientists of the 20th century was also the leader of the Zionist movement after the death of Theodor Herzl, and a close friend of Winston Churchill. His process for producing acetone from grain saved Britain from an acute shortage of shells – the so-called “shell crisis” of 1915, which reduced British guns to firing just four times a day. Through this important contribution to the War effort and his close friendship with leading members of Parliament, on July 17, 1917 Winston Churchill assumed the post of Minister of Munitions and encouraged the Foreign Minister Arthur Balfour to write a public declaration supporting a Jewish State in Palestine. This was a remarkable document considering that at the time as now, the Foreign Ministry was controlled by Arabists who took a negative view towards Jews and Zionism. This document set in motion the eventual Palestine Mandate of 1919 under Britain, and later the UN Declaration of November 29, 1947 for the establishment of a Jewish State in Palestine. On May 14, 1948, with the official recognition of The United States and shortly thereafter The Soviet Union, The State of Israel was declared. Unfortunately, Britain not only failed to fulfill its obligations during the Mandate, it actively did everything possible to prevent a Jewish state from ever being established. At first it limited Jewish immigration, while at the same time it encouraged Arab immigration (150,000 to 200,000 with no quotas), finally stopping all Jewish immigration to Palestine with the British White Paper of March 1939 thus insuring the deaths of millions of Jews trapped in Europe. In spite of the carnage of the Holocaust and 6,000,000 murdered Jews Britain was relentless (A Labour Government had replaced Winston Churchill in 1945 with a mediocrity— Clement Atlee and an antisemitic Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin in the years 1946-47, with over 100,000 British soldiers against 600,000 Jews. With the bombing of the King David Hotel on July 22, 1946, where many high-ranking British soldiers were killed, Britain lost much of its resolve but showed only contempt and hatred for the Jews. Up until Israel declared its independence, Britain continued its policy of arming Arabs, disarming Jews, lobbying the State Department to prevent a Jewish State, preventing Jewish immigration (400,000 Jews remained in DP Camps and Internment Camps), creating a worldwide embargo on arms to the Jews and preventing Jews from North Africa and the Middle East from coming to Palestine in spite of pogroms and their plight. Their celebrated General Montgomery stated that the Jews couldn’t fight and would last at most four months after independence. Obviously Montgomery was wrong. In fact, after Israel was declared independent, Britain began its long slide from being a world power (one of the three victors of WWII), to a second-rate country still petulant about the birth of Israel and The Balfour Declaration. Britain should have heeded Jeremiah 30:3 and its promise of the complete restoration of Israel.
The inner strength of the Jewish People as exemplified in the heroic words of Joseph Trumpeldor the martyr of Tel Hai still echo today –
“We need men and women who are ready for everything, everything that the land of Israel will demand. A generation that will have no private interests or habits, but be like a simple iron bar, which can be shaped to anything that is needed for the national machine.
“Is the wheel missing? I am that wheel.
‘”Do we lack a nail, a screw, a flywheel? Take me.
“Must we dig? I am the spade. We need a soldier? I am that soldier. Policeman, doctor, lawyer, fireman? Take me. I will do everything. I have no faith, no philosophy, no feelings; I don’t even have a name. I am the pure ideal of service, prepared for anything. I am bound by no limits. I know only one command: to build.”
“But,” I (Jabotinsky) said to Trumpeldor, “there are no people like this.”
“There shall be, “said he.”
These are the Jews who made Israel and continue to make Israel today.
The Forsaken Promise 117 Minutes $39.95
The Balfour Declaration of 1917 brought to fruition the hope of millions of Jews as well as many leading Evangelical Christians. Their support, both politically and popularly, for a Jewish homeland in Palestine came from the leading power of Europe, Great Britain. This promise that hopefully fulfilled Theodor Herzl’s worldwide movement of Zionism would be broken by Britain piece by piece until its final betrayal – The White Paper of 1939 – that effectively ended all Jewish immigration to Palestine when the Jews of Europe were searching for refuge from the Nazis and the eventual Holocaust.
Palestine For Victory 45 Minutes $24.95
How the Jewish Brigade during WWII set the stage for the Bricha (the rescue of the Jewish Survivors after the War) and helped Great Britain in its struggle against Nazi Germany. Out of a population of 600,000 Jews, Palestine provided the British with 30,000 soldiers who fought valiantly against Nazi Germany.
Herzl 45 Minutes $24.95
The story of Theodor Herzl and how he founded the Zionist Movement
CHRISTIANS UNITED FOR ISRAEL-CUFI
For the Jewish People’s past and present, the smile, the wink, the Yiddishism, the symbol (but never the deed), has often given Jews the warm feeling of not being alone, a feeling of being loved or at least liked by Christians/Gentiles. It has engendered high expectations in political leaders (FDR, JFK, LBJ and most recently in Barack Obama with his pre-election visit to the Western Wall in 2008 as proof of this fidelity. Books and articles and even museums (American Jewish Museum, Holocaust Museum) have been written and exhibits presented extolling this Jewish connection. However, the reality has usually been the opposite — whether it was FDR doing nothing for the trapped Jews of Europe before and during the Holocaust and later disavowing US support for a Jewish State, JFK refusing to meet officially with David Ben-Gurion the Prime Minister of Israel, LBJ warning Israel not to have a pre-emptive attack on Egypt in 1967 (this was at a time when 7 Arab armies were massed on Israel’s borders with 500,000 troops, 2,000 planes, the active support in arms, material and troops from the Soviet Union(ix) and the width of Israel at its most vulnerable was 9 miles, and disavowing the Memorandum of 1957 signed by President Eisenhower guaranteeing US support to Israel(x) in the event of an attack or blockade, or most recently the Obama administration’s support of the UN’s criminalization of Jews living in Jerusalem. Hollywood’s greatest screenwriter and later the greatest propagandist for the establishment of a Jewish State, Ben Hecht, said in 1947 “The Jews have always had friends in court- but they have never won a verdict. They have been always a noise without power, a talent without roots.” There has also been a false amity between Jews and Christians (National Conference of Christians and Jews, Chapel of the Four Chaplains, etc.) as well as individual contacts between Jewish communal leaders and Christian groups (Catholic Church, Mainstream Protestant Denominations and Seminaries). However, in time of need especially the need of physical survival, they have always deserted the Jews. (The Holocaust, Six Day War, Yom Kippur War, Arab Terrorism and most recently BDS). But today the Jews are truly not alone for the first time in 2,000 years. In February 2006 under the leadership of Pastor John Hagee of the Cornerstone Church in San Antonio, Texas he founded with 400 initial members, Christians United For Israel (CUFI) whose only objective was support of Israel and combatting Antisemitism. This organization came out of Cornerstone Church and Pastor Hagee’s close relationship with Rabbi Aryeh Scheinberg, Rabbi of Congregation Rodfei Sholom in San Antonio, Texas, an Orthodox Synagogue, with its annual Salute to Israel Night bringing Cornerstone Church’s congregants into the Synagogue to celebrate Israel. Today Christians United For Israel (CUFI) is the largest pro-Israel, pro-Jewish organization in the world with 3.5 million members, with branches in Great Britain and with a permanent representative on Capital Hill. It has been recognized by The State of Israel by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu as one of the most effective voices for Israel in the United States, and has received the highest compliments from Malcolm Hoenlein, Executive Director of the Conference of American Jewish Organizations, the umbrella group for all Jewish organizations (except J Street, Jewish Voice For Peace and other Jewish ad hoc self-hating groups in the United States) as the group that is the most pro-Jewish and pro-Israel. At the Washington Summit 2017 Pastor Hagee proclaimed Christian watchmen are warriors against Antisemitism. What is our aim? Victory! Everyone in this room is fighting against Antisemitism, BDS and the UN (after the criminalization of Jews living in Jerusalem). The UN is a political brothel. We are grateful to our ambassador Nikki Haley. God will not hold us guiltless if we don’t speak out against Antisemitism. Israel is not occupied territory. 1917 Balfour Declaration, 1967 Six Day War, 2017 Jerusalem Jubilee. Jerusalem is God’s address. Christianity cannot explain its existence without Judaism. Jerusalem belongs to the Jewish People. CUFI is now active on 200 college campuses as CUFI on Campus, fighting together with Stand With Us and Hillel against BDS and Antisemitism. CUFI also has been active in fighting against the “Fake” history narrative now being taught in our schools, international groups, academia, broadcasted in our mainstream media; and of course the internet about “Palestinian” authenticism as being the original inhabitants. The ancient Philistines (Palestine) were a Minoan culture (Greek not Arab), spoke a proto-Greek language and were extinct by 800 BCE. Palestine was the name given by Emperor Hadrian in 135 CE to help extinguish Jewish nationalism. The Arab occupation of Israel is recent and in their sojourn of 1,500 years they have only established one town. (Ramle, in the shadow of Ben Gurion Airport). Today because of CUFI working together with AIPAC and other pro-Israel organizations, Texas, Arkansas, Nevada are included in the 22 states that punish firms that honor BDS. Sadly with all this great and heartfelt love and support of CUFI, only Orthodox Jewish Congregations have invited them into their Synagogues. This must change. For once we have Christians who truly love us, as a people, as a religion and as a nation. This is a very special time in Jewish history. We must welcome CUFI into our Synagogues, our schools and our hearts. We are indeed blessed.
Apples Of Gold 80 Minutes $24.95
From the early Zionist pioneers to the present, this film recounts the triumphs and travails of the Jewish people’s return to Israel and the rebuilding of the land.
Explorers Of The Holy Land In The 19th Century 27 Minutes $24.95
The location of over 1,000 biblical sites in Israel (19th century Palestine) paved the way for the field of Biblical Archaeology and the knowledge of the Jewish patrimony of Israel.
ANTISEMITISM FROM THE CHURCH DURING THE MIDDLE AGES
The roots of Antisemitism go back 2,000 years, but one of the foundational moments was recorded in Hyam Maccoby’s masterpiece The Disputation. In his now classic Judaism on Trial, Hyam Maccoby translated the original documents of the Barcelona Disputation of 1263. In The Disputation he gives a dramatic reconstruction of the debate. Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides), one of Judaism’s greatest thinkers speaks for Judaism and Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, is the Christian speaker. During the Middle Ages (in the highest point of the spiritual and temporal influence of the Catholic Church), the plight of Jews was often a dire choice between conversion or death, or conversion or exile. While there were times of relative peace and tolerance, these were usually short lived. In the case of the Catholic clergy and Catholic orders, the Dominican Order (xi) in particular was relentless in its campaign against Jews and Judaism. One of the preferred methods of converting Jews was the forced sermons of the Christian clergy in the Synagogue, with dire consequences to the Jews who didn’t see the “truth” of Christianity,(xii) or a Disputation between a member of the clergy and a rabbi without the freedom to question the verities of Christianity. In 1263 , Raymond de Penyafort, the confessor to King James I of Aragon (Spain) and head of the Dominican Order in Spain convinced the King to hold a Disputation with Pablo Christiani, a Jewish convert representing Christianity, and Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides)(xi) representing Judaism. Relying upon the fear of criticizing Christianity and the Christian clergy, Christiani assured the King that he could prove the truth of Christianity xii from the Talmud (The Jewish Oral Law), Nachmanides agreed to the debate but stipulated that complete freedom of speech be granted. The Disputation involved three questions: (1} Whether the Messiah had appeared or not. (2) Whether the Messiah is divine or a human being (3) Whether the Jews or the Christians hold the true faith. The Disputation, while overwhelmingly won by Nachmanides (he received 300 gold coins from the King), caused his exile as well as further difficulties for the Jews of Barcelona. Even so, the Dominicans claimed victory. Nachmanides felt compelled to rebut this falsehood by publishing his reply. From Nachmanides’ publication Christiani selectedly chose only certain passages (making it out of context),which he said constituted blasphemies against Christianity and The Church. The Dominicans under their head Raymond de Penyfort asked for the sentence of death by burning at the stake (xiii) against Nachmanides who fortunately was able to leave Spain for Jerusalem, where he subsequently founded a Synagogue and Yeshiva.
The Disputation 63 Minutes $39.95. Christopher Lee stars in the reenactment of the famous Disputation of 1263.
Shadow On The Cross 52 Minutes $59.95. The late Franklin Littell, distinguished pastor, educator and head of the Anne Frank House of Philadelphia introduces and guides the viewer into the oft forgotten fact that the antisemitism that led to the Holocaust was born and bred in Christendom and was directly a result of Christianity. According to Franklin Littell, “Antisemitism is a fatal flaw in Christianity’s attempt to serve God.”
(i) January 1948 Solomon Mikhoels, artistic head of the Moscow Yiddish Theatre is assassinated by the NKVD in Minsk on Stalin’s orders.
November 1948 members of The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee are arrested and executed by the NKVD.
August 12-13, 1952 Night of Murdered Poets – 13 of the prominent Yiddish poets and writers are executed by the NKVD.
The Black Book of Russian Jewry Ilya Ehrenburg and Vasily Grossman 1945 Transaction Books 2002.
Life and Fate Vasily Grossman Harvill 1985 NYRB 2006.
Stalin’s War Against The Jews Louis Rapoport Free Press 1990.
(ii) Pope Pius XII excoriated the Nuremberg tribunal for its sentencing of Nazi War Criminals to death.
The Vatican also provided Nazi War Criminals with the Ratline (Vatican Passports) to South America to escape prosecution from the allies (this is how Adolf Eichmann landed up in Argentina).
(iii) The Obama Deal with Iran included $1.7 billion to Iran in cash in non-US currency (Euros, Swiss Francs, English Pounds) delivered on pallets January 17, 2017 – Associated Press September 7, 2016.
(iv) Christians United For Israel (CUFI) is the largest pro-Israel organization in the world with 3.5 million members.
Ironically most of the congressional support for Israel and against BDS is from states with few Jews and many Evangelical Christians
(v) Cherokee DNA –Qualla Reservation, Western North Carolina.
John Hulley – Hebrew Nations
Taborblog – Dr. James D. Tabor
Simcha Jacobovici – Quest For The Lost Tribes 2003, Lost Tribe of Gad 2014
Shavei Israel – Michael Freund
(vi) J Street Challenge – Avi Goldwasser 2015
(vii) CUFI on Campus is on over 200 campuses working with STAND WITH US and HILLEL in combatting BDS and attacks on Jews.
(viii) THE CANARY MISSION database (www.canarymission.org) was created to document the people and groups that are promoting hatred of the United States, Israel and Jews on college campuses in North America.
CAMERA (www.camera.org) reviews and identifies anti-Israel, antisemitic media in the press, tv and the internet. It also provides outreach to students and faculty in colleges and universities in North America in fighting BDS and antisemitism.
(ix) Foxbats Over Dimona Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez Yale University Press 2008.
(x) Letter from President Eisenhower to David Ben-Gurion February 28, 1957.
(xi) In 1236 The Dominican Order along with Franciscan Order participated in the mass burning of the Talmud in Paris.
(xiii) Usanef Tokef – a prayer still chanted in Synagogues on Yom Kippur about the forced conversions in the Middle Ages and the martyrdom of Rabbi Amnon of Mayence.
Burning at the stake was the preferred method of execution for blasphemies and heresy against the Church.